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General Studies - I
Section -A (Marks : 40 )
Brief history of Maharashtra: Socio-cultural development during thefollowing regimes - Satvahanas - Vakatakas - Chalukyas - Rashtrakutas -Shilahars - Yadavas - Muslim regimes and Marathas.
History of Modern India (1818-1857) particularly Maharashtra [^] : Introduction of modern education - Press, Railway, Post andTelegraph, Industries, Land reforms and Socio-religious reforms - Its impacton society.
Social and economic awakening: IndianNationalism - 1857 revolt and after, Indian National Congress (1885 - 1947),Role of important personalities, Role of Press and Education in socialawakening in pre- independent India.
The other contemporary movements during pre-independence: Satyashodhak Samaj - Dr. B.R.Ambedkar's Movement - HinduMahasabha- Muslim League - National Revolutionary Movement - Leftist Movement- Peseant Movement - Tribal uprising.
Post Independence development: Integration of princely states, formation of Linguistic states,Samyukta Maharashtra movement major political parties and personalitiesinvolved therein, Major developments and personalities during 1960-1990.
Cultural Heritage of Maharashtra (Ancient to Modern) : PerformingArts (Dance, Drama, Films, Music and Folk Arts), Visual Arts (Architecture,Painting and Sculpture) and Festivals.
Impact of Literature on socio - psychological development of Maharashtra: Bhakti, Dalit, Urban and Rural Literature.
Section -B ( Marks : 40 )
a) Geography of India - with special reference to Maharashtra :
01) Location and extent - India's strategic location with reference to her neighbours, IndianOcean Rim, Asia and the Worl
02) Physical Geography:- Evolution of the Subcontinent - Majorphysiographic regions - Problems of floods and river pollution -Physiographic details of Maharashtra.a) Climate: Distribution of Rainfall. Rainfall in Maharashtra - spatial andtemporal variability - Agroclimatic zones of Maharashtra - Problem of Droughtand scarcity, DPAP (Draught Prone Area Programme) -Water requirement inAgricultural, Industrial and Domestic Sectors. Problem of Drinking Water.
b) Soils - problems of soil erosion and degradation in Maharashtra. c) Natural Vegetation and wild life - Forest types in India and Indian wild life - National Parks - Sanctuaries in Maharashtra - Tiger Project.
03) Economic Geography:- Minerals and Energy Resources : Theredistribution, importance and development in Maharashtra. Tourism in Maharashtra - Religious,Medicinal, Eco-Tourism and Cultural Heritage.
04) Human and Social Geography:
Distribution of population. Migration ofpopulation - effects of migration on source and destination areas. Rural settlements in Maharashtra. Problems of Urbanand Rural Settlements - Environmental, Housing, Slum, Water Supply andSanitation, Urban Traffic and Pollution.
Section -C ( Marks : 40)
3) Indian Polity (With special Reference to Maharashtra) :
01) The Constitution of India: Making of theConstitution - Philosophy of the Preamble - Salient Features of theConstitution (Secular democratic and socialist) - Fundamental Rights andDuties - Directive Principles of State Policy such as Free and Compulsoryprimary education, Uniform Civil Code - Centre - State relations andFormation of New States - Independent Judiciary - Amendment Procedure : MajorAmendments to the Constitution : Landmark Judgments used for interpreting theConstitution. Structure and Functions of majorCommissions and Boards: Election Commission, Union and State Public ServiceCommissions, National Women's Commission, Human Rights Commission, NationalMinorities S.C./S.T. Commission - River Water Dispute Settlements Board etc.
02) The Political System (Structure, Powers and Functions ofGovernments) :
a) The CentralGovernment - The Union Executive: President- Vice-President- Prime Minister and Council of Ministers - Attorney General of India - Comptroller and Auditor General of India
b) The Union Legislature- Parliament, Speaker and Dy. Speaker -Parliamentary Committees - Parliament's Control over Executive.
c)Judiciary: Organisation of Judiciary - Integrated Judiciary- Functions - Role and Power of the Supreme Court and High Court -Subordinate Courts - Lok Pal, Lok Aayukt and Lok Nyayalaya - Judiciary as awatch-dog protecting the Constitutional Order- Judicial Activism.
d) The State Government: The State Executive - Governor - Chief Minister and the Councilof Minister - Role, Functions and Powers - The State Legislature -Legislative Assembly - Legislative Council - Compositions - Powers, Functionsand Role - Legislative Committees.
e) The Local Governments:
01) Urban - Municipal Corporations, Municipal councils, Municipalities,Nagarpanchayat and Cantonment Boards. Structure, Officials, Resources,Powers- Functions and Controls. (2) Rural - Panchayat Raj System - Zilla Parishad, Taluka Panchayat andVillage Panchayat - Structure - Officials - Resources - Powers- Functions andControls (3) Significance of 73rd and 74thAmendment to the Constitution. (4) Empowerment of local government and their role indevelopment.
03) Parties and Pressure Groups: Nature of Party system - Role of NationalParties - Ideology, organisation and electoral performance - Regional Parties- Ideology, Organisation and electoral performance - Major Pressure Groupsand Interest Groups in Maharashtra - their Role and impact on Policy making.
04) The Media: Print and Electronic Media - its impacton policy making, shaping of the public opinion and educating the people.
05) The Electoral Process: Main features of Electoral process - singlemember territorial Constituencies. Reserved constituencies for weakersections - Adult Franchise - Role of Election Commission - General Elections- Major trends - Patterns of Voting behaviour - and Factors influencing thevoting behaviour - Problems and difficulties in conducting Free and FairElections - Electoral Reforms.
06) Challenges and Responses to Indian Democracy: Social and Economic inequalities - Regional imbalances -illiteracy and unemployment.
Section - D( Marks : 40 )
4) Human Resource Development (HRD) :-
01) Human Resource Development in India - Presentstatus of population in India - quantitative aspect (size and growth - Sex, Age, Urban andRural) and qualitative aspects (Education and Healthcare). Population policy and projection upto2050. Importance and need of HumanResource planning in modern society. Components and factors involved inplanning of Human Resources. Nature,types and problems of unemployment in India, Trends of Employment in India, Demand estimate of skilled manpower in different Sectors andAreas. Governmental and VoluntaryInstitution engaged in development of manpower e.g. NCERT, NIEPA, UGC, Open Universities, AICTE, ITIs, NCVT, IMC etc. Problems and issues related to HRD.Govt. employment policy, various schemes to reduce unemployment andunderemployment.
02) Education: Education as a tool of HR developmentand social change. Education (Pre-primary to Higher Education) system in India. Problems and issues (Universalisation of education,vocationalisation of education. Quality improvement, Dropout etc.) Education for - Girls, Socially andEconomically underprivileged classes, Handicapped, Minorities, Talent Searchetc. Govt. policies, Schemes andprogramms for Education, Govt. and Voluntary Agencies involved in promoting,regulating and monitoring Formal, Non- formal and Adult education.e-Learning. Impact of globalisationand privatisation on Indian education.
03) Vocational Education: As a tool of HRdevelopment. Vocational/TechnicalEducation- Present status, systems and training in India particularly in Maharashtra. Govt. policies, schemes and programs - Problems, issues andefforts to overcome them. Institutes involved in promoting, regulating,accrediting vocational and Technical Education.
04) Health: As an essential and major component ofHRD, Vital Statistics, World Health Organisation (WHO) - objectives,structure, functions and its programmes. Govt. Health policies, schemes andprogrammes, Healthcare system in India. Problems and issuesrelated to Healthcare and efforts to overcome them.
05) Rural Development: Empowerment ofpanchayat Raj system. VillagePanchayat and its role in Rural development, Land reforms and development,Role of cooperative institutes in Rural Development, Financial Institutesinvolved in Rural Development, Rural Employment Schemes, Rural Water Supplyand Sanitation programs. Infrastructure development e.g. Energy,Transportation, Housing and communication in rural area.
Section - E( Marks : 40 )
5) Human Rights :- Concept-Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR 1948)- International humanrights standards, Its reflections in Indian constitution, mechanism toenforce and protect Human Rights in India, Human Rights Movement in India,Problems related to human rights deprivations such as poverty, illiteracy, unemployment,social-cultural-religious practices, violence, corruption, terrorism,exploitation of labour, custodial crimes etc.). Need, for training andpractising of human rights and human dignity in a democratic set up.
6) Socio-Economic development of following segments of the society :-
01) Child Development: problems and issues(Infant mortality, Malnutrition, Child labour, Children education etc.) -Government Policies, welfare schemes and programs - Role of internationalagencies, Voluntary Organisations Community resources. People participationin their Welfare.
.02) Women Development - problems and issues(Gender inequality, Violence against women, Girl child Infanticide/Foeticide,Empowerment of Women etc.)- Government Policy, schemes and programs fordevelopment / welfare and empowerment - Role of international agencies,Voluntary Organisations and Community resources. People’s participation intheir development.
03) Youth Development: problems and issues(Unemployment, unrest, drug addiction etc.) - Government Policy - developmentschemes and programs - Role of international agencies, VoluntaryOrganisations and Community resources. People’s participation in theirdevelopment.
04) Tribal Development: problems and issues(Malnutrition, isolation, integration and development etc.) - Tribal movement- Government Policy, welfare schemes and programs- Role of internationalagencies, Voluntary Organisations and Community resources. People’sparticipation in their Welfare.
05) Development for Socially deprived classes ( SC, OBC etc. ) - problems and issues (inequality in opportunity etc.) -Government Policy, welfare schemes and development programs - Role ofinternational agencies, Voluntary Organisations and Resource mobilsation andCommunity participation.
06) Welfare for aged People- problems and issues- Government Policy - welfare schemes and programs - Role of internationalagencies, Voluntary Organisations and Community participation for theirdevelopment. Utilisation of their services in developmental activities.
07) Labour Welfare - problems and issues(working conditions, wages, health and problems related to organised andunorganised sectors) - GovernmentPolicy, welfare schemes and programs - Role of international agencies,community and Voluntary Organisations.
08) Welfare of disabled persons - problems andissues (inequality in educational and employment opportunity etc.) -Government Policy, welfare schemes and programs - Role of internationalagencies, Voluntary Organisations in employment and rehabilitation.
09) People’s Rehabilitations - (People affected by Development projects and Natural Calamities.) -Strategy and programs - Legal Provisions - Consideration of different aspectslike economic, cultural, social, psychological etc.
7) Globalisationand its impact on different sections of Indian Society.
8) Consumer Protection: Salient features ofthe existing act- Rights of consumers- Consumer disputes and redressalmachinery, Different kinds of Forums- Objectives, Powers, functions, procedures, Consumer Welfare Fund.
9) Values and Ethics : Fostering of social norms, values, ethics through formal andinformal agencies such as family, religion, education, media etc.
General Studies - II
Section - A( Marks : 40 )
India in World Affairs:-
1) Foreign Policy of India :-
01) Basic Principles, Objectives, andDeterminants of foreign policy.
02)India and Neighbours: Conflict andCo-operation.
03) India and Indian Ocean.
04) Foreign Economic Policy of India: Aid, Trade and economic cooperation.
2) Nuclear Policy of India :
01) Salient features.
02) Determinants ofNuclear Tests:
Pokhran I (1974) and Pokhran II (1998)
03) Recent Trends in Nuclear Policy such asNPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) and CTBT (Comprehensive Test BanTreaty.)
3) India's External and Internal SecurityConcerns :
01) Terrorism, Insurgency, Regional andSub-regional conflicts; Socio-economic imbalances; Naxalite Movements,Separatist Movements, Communal Violences and Caste Conflicts.
02) Law Enforcement Mechanism and Judiciary.
a) Existing Laws and Regulations with reference to Maharashtra [^] .
1. Intelligence and Security Agencies
c) Treaties of Extradition and Interpol.
4) International Affairs and Institutions :
01) Emerging important issues and events ininternational relations (1990 onwards) Political, Strategic and Economic : considerations.
02) Regional andInternational Institutions:
a) SAARC, ASEAN, NAM, Commonwealth of Nations and European Union.b) United Nations System: Its Charter andOrgans, (General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council andInternational Court of Justice) c) UN Agencies: UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNPeace Keeping Forces, UNCHR, ILO and WHO.
Section - B( Marks : 40 )
Indian Economy, Planning, Trade, Rural Development
5) Planning : Process - Types - Review of India'sFirst to Tenth Five year Plans. Evaluation. Social and Economic Indicators of Development. State and Local Level Planning. Decentralisation - 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments.
Indian Economy - trends in SectoralDevelopment and profile of service Sector. Challenges in Indian Economy -Poverty, Unemployment and Regional Imbalances.
6) Urban and Rural Infrastructure Development: Need and Significance. Growth and Development of Social and economic infrastructure such asEnergy, Water supply and sanitation, Housing, Transport (Road, Portsetc.) Communications (Post andTelegraphs, Telecommunication), Network of Radio, TV, Internet. Crises, problems related to Infrastructurein India. Policy alternatives -Public-Private Sector Partnership. FDIand Infrastructure Development - Privatisation of infrastructuredevelopment. Centre and StateGovernment Policies for Infrastructure Development. Transport and Housing (Urban and Rural).Problems - Centre and State Government initiatives and programmes.
7) Industry : Need - importance and role of industries in economic and socialdevelopment, Growth Pattern, Structure of Large-scale Industries in India with special reference to Maharashtra. Small-scale,Cottage and Village industries Problems Prospects of Small scale, cotage andvillage industry. Impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisationon SSIs. State Government Policy,measures and programmes for development, promotion and monitoring of SSIs(with special reference to Maharashtra) Export Potential of Small scale and cottage industries.
8) Co-operation: Concept, Meaning, Objectives, Old andnew principles of co-operation. Growthand diversification of co-operative movement in India. Co-operative institution in Maharashtra - types, role,importance and diversification. State policy and Co-operative sector -Legislation, Supervision, Audit and Aid. Problems of Co-operatives in Maharashtra. Prospects ofCooperatives in the era of global competition.
9) Economic reforms: Background,Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation - (concept, meaning, scopeand limitations). Economic Reforms at Centre and State Level. WTO Regime - Provisions and itsimplications and impact on Indian Economy, issues and problems.
10) International Trade and International Captial Movements: Emerging Trends in era of globalisation. Growth, Composition and Direction of India's Foreign Trade. Foreign trade policy of India - Export Promotion. WTOand International Trade. Foreign Capital Inflows - Composition and Growth -FDI. e-Commerce. Role ofMultinationals - International Financing Agencies - (IMF, World Bank andIDA). International Credit Ratings.
11) Public Finance: Sources of revenue -tax, non-tax and public debt of Centre and States in India. Public Expenditure(Centre and States) - Growth and causes. Public Expenditure Reform -Performance Based Budgeting and Zero - Based Budgeting. review of Tax Reforms at national and State level. VAT.
Public debt - Growth, Composition andBurden. Problem of States'Indebtedness to Centre.
Fiscal Deficits - Concepts, Control ofDeficits - Centre, State and RBI Initiatives.
Fiscal Reforms in India - Review at Centre and State Level.
Section - C( Marks : 40 )
12) Natural Resource Development
1. Agriculture: Importance of Agriculture in NationalEconomy - Causes of low productivity - Government policies, schemes andprogrammes for agriculture production and developments such as land reformsand land utilisation, soil and water conservation, rainfed farming,Irrigation and its methods, Agriculture inputs (improved seeds, Fertilizersand Manures, Pest Management, Mechanization of Agriculture). Problem of ruralindebtedness, Agriculture credit- need, importance and Financial Institutionsinvolved therein. Agriculture pricing- components, factors affecting pricesof various Agriculture produces - Govt. support prices of various agricultureproduces, Subsidies. Agriculture Marketing - present status, Value addedproducts. Role of Govt and itsinstitutes in agriculture marketing.
13) Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development: Its role, importanceand significance in National Economy, Livestock in India particularly inMaharashtra, Govt policies, schemes and programmes for livestock developmentincluding livestock breeds, feeds and fodder, Healthcare - Role of milk, meatand poultry products in human nutrition, White Revolution, Co-operative dairyenterprises in Maharashtra.
14) Development of fisheries: Its role and significance in national economy, scope anddevelopment of fisheries in India and particularly in Maharashtra, Causes of low productivity and Govt efforts to overcome it,export of marine products.
15) Horticulture: Importance and scope of fruit andplantation crops with reference to Maharashtra, Role of fruits and vegetablesin human nutrition, Major fruit Plants, vegetable crops and flower plants ofMaharashtra, Horticultural crops suitable for dryland and rainfed condition.Problems and its solutions of low productivity. Processing, packaging,transportation, marketing of Horticultural Products. Government schemes andprograms for Horticulture development and marketing, Government Agencies andInstitutes engaged in Horticulture development.
16) Forestry: Its role in enhancing the quality ofenvironment, Causes and effects of deforestation, Problems and issues relatedto forestry - Government policies and afforestration programmes (Socialforestry, Agroforestry), Utilisation of forest products, Role of Government,Voluntary Organisation and local community in forest development.
17) Food and Nutrition: Food - trends inFood production and consumption in India, First and ensuing second GreenRevolutions, Self-sufficiency in food, Problem of food security, Problems andissues of storage, procurement, distribution, import and export of food.Calorific value of foods and its measurement, Energy and nutrient needs ofhuman body for better health and balanced diet - common nutritional problemsin India and its causes and effects, Govt. Policies, schemes, programs suchas PDS, Food for work, Mid-day Meal Scheme and other nutritional programs.
Section - D( Marks : 40 )
Scientific and Technological Developments
18) Energy: Conventional and non-conventionalenergy sources - Potential of Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Geothermal andother renewable energy sources. Introduction to solar gadgets viz solarcooker, water heater etc. Biogas- principle, and process.
Problems of Energy Crises, Govt.Policies and programs for power generation. Nuclear Power Program, ThermalPower Program, Hydroelectric Power program, Power distribution and NationalGrid. Agencies and Institutions engaged in Energy security, Research anddevelopment.
19) Computer: Role of computer in modernsociety, its applications in variousspheres of life such as data communication, networking and web technologies,Cyber crime and its prevention.
20) Information Technology: as a new industry -use of I.T. in various services and faculties of knowledge. Growth andpresent status of I.T. industry in India, Govt. programs such as Media Lab Asia, Vidya Vahini, GyanVahini, Community Information Centre etc. Major issues in IT industry - itsprospects.
21) Space Technology: Indian spaceprogrammes, Artificial satellites - types and applications, Indian Artificialsatellites for telecommunication, television, education, broadcasting,weather forecasting, GPS, disaster warning. Indian missile program etc.
Remote sensing, GIS and its applicationin weather forecasting, Disaster warning, water, soil, mineral resourcesdevelopment, agriculture and fisheries development, urban planning,ecological studies, GS and GIS.
22) Water Resources: Significance ofwater in human & national development, National and State Water Policy,Water Resources - potential, planning and development in India particularlyin Maharashtra, Intrastate andInterstate River water disputes, Various irrigation projects, Nationalprogramme of flood management, Groundwater development in India particularlyin Maharashtra. National and State Agencies engaged in water resourcedevelopment and research.
23) Ocean Development: Role of the seas inclimatic changes and monsoon in India, Marine living and non-living resourcesdevelopment, causes and effect of sea pollution and coastal degradation,Coastal and Marine Area Management, CRZ Regulation, Coastal CommunityDevelopment. Govt. programs and activitiesfor ocean resources development, Ocean observing and research.
24) Meteorology: Earth atmosphere - its composition,extent and structure. Atmospheric weather variables (Parameters), Weatherforecasting system, cloud formation and movement - Monsoon model - crop yieldmodel.
25) Environment: Ecosystems - Biodiversity and balanceecosystem - Biosphere Reserve (wetlands, mangroves coral reefs). Pollution:Types and sources, its impact on environment and related problems, Govt.efforts to prevent and control of pollution, Govt. legislation andprograms. Sustainable development infield of agriculture, industry, urban habitant, etc. Govt. and Voluntaryagencies engaged in Environmental protection activities at national andinternational level.
26) Biotechnology: Its potential toimprove human life and national economy through agricultural, industrialdevelopment and employment generation. Biotechnology as an essential andimportant tool of natural resource development. Areas of application - Agriculture,Animal breeding and Veterinary health-care, Pharmaceutics, Human healthcare,Food technology, energy generation, environment protection etc. Role andefforts of government in promoting, regulating and developing biotechnologyin country. Ethical, Social, Legalissues related to biotechnological development, possible adverse effects ofbiotechnological development.
Section - E ( Marks : 40 )
StatisticalAnalysis, Graphs and Diagrams
27) Classification and Tablulation of Datagiven in descriptive form.
28) Computation and interpretation of Mean,Median, Mode of Data given.
29) Conversion of Tabular data / informationin a) Diagram - Venn, bar, Pie diagram. b) Graph - Line graph, Histogram,Polygon.
30) Interpretation of Data / Informationgiven in Tabular and Diagramatic / Graphical Form.
31) Pointing out deficiencies, limitations,in consistencies in the given Data.
32) To prepare Algorithm and Flow chart forsolving simple problems in organisation.