Welcome to IFS Syllabus 2018 Section. Here you will find Indian Forest Service Syllabys 2018 for Forestry, Botony, Physics, Zoology, Agriculture and Chemistry.
The Indian forest service’s faces a number of precedent and exceptional challenges in the line of duty. These challenges have called for needed reforms in the IFS syllabus that is used for recruitment of new officers into the service. The revised syllabus has undergone significant changes in various topics and subjects of study in the last few years.
IFS Forestry Syllabus 2018:-
Paper – I
1. Silviculture – General :
General Silvicultural Principles :
Ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques-nursery beds, polybags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.
2. Silviculture – Systems :
Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems. Management of silviculture systems of temperate, subtropical, humid tropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods, technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding thinning.
3. Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold desert :
Habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove formations; silvicultural systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against natural disasters.
Cold desert : Characteristics, identification and management of species.
4. Silviculture of Trees :
Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrus deodara, Chukrasia tabularis, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp., Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi, Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacardium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa, Tamarindus indica.
1. Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology :
Agroforestry : Scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and in integrated land use, planning especially related to the following :
(i) Soil and water conservation.
(ii) Water recharge.
(iii) Nutrient availability to crops.
(iv) Nature and eco-system preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator relationships and
(v) Providing opportunities for enhancing bio-diversity, medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones; selection of species and role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food, fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.
Social/Urban Forestry : Objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
JFM : Principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
Tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, principles of social grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.
2. Forest Soils, Soil Conservation and Watershed management :
Forests Soils : Classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and biological properties.
Soil conservation :
Definition, causes for erosion; types – wind and water erosion; conservation and management of eroded soils / areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of microorganisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
Watershed Management :
Concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.
3. Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity :
Components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, population growth on environment.
Types, global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development. Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental policy and legislation in India. Environmental Impact Assessment. Economics assessment of watershed development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.
4. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology :
General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance, seed source, exotics; quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement, seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement, genetic testing programming, selection and breeding for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest genetic resources and gene conservation in situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio, economic evaluation.
1. Forest Management and Management Systems :
Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield relation; rotation, normal forest, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of forest plantations, commercial forests, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz.,
(i) Site-specific planning.
(ii) Strategic planning.
(iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure.
(v) Reporting and governance. Details of steps involved such as formation of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.
2. Forest Working Plan :
Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools and approaches for integrated planning; multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries development; working plans and working schemes, their role in nature conservation, bio-diversity and other dimensions; preparation and control. Divisional Working Plans, Annual Plan of Operations.
3. Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing :
Methods of measuring – diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form-factor; volume estimation of stand, current anuual increment; mean annual increment. Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield calculation; yield and stand tables, forest cover monitoring through remote sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modelling.
4. Surveying and Forest Engineering :
Forest surveying – different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic principles of forest engineering. Building materials and construction. Roads and Bridges; General principles, objects, types, simple design and construction of timber bridges.
1. Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany :
Forest ecology – Biotic and aboitic components, forest eco-systems; forest community concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging salinity and alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification of species, composition and associations; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Conservation of forest ecosystems. Clonal parks, Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani – Introduction, nomenclature, habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic plants. Factors affecting action and toxicity of drug plants and their chemical constituents.
2. Forest Resources and Utilization :
Environmenatlly sound forest harvesting practices; logging and extraction techniques and principles, transportation system, storage and sale; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) definition and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos, medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac, Katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and disposal.
Need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; general principles of seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns. Composite wood; adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses, plywood manufacture-properties, uses, fibre boards-manufacture properties, uses; particle boards manufacture; properties uses. Present status of composite wood industry in India in future expansion plans. Pulp-paper and rayon; present position of supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of plantation wood; problems and possibilities.
Anatomical structure of wood, defects and abnormalities of wood, timber identification – general principles.
3. Forest Protection & Wildlife Biology :
Injuries to forest – abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease, effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to damage, nature of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due to chemical and biological control. General forest protection against fire, equipment and methods, controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations after natural disasters. Role of afforestation and forest regeneration in absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing, different methods of control against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on forest regeneration, human impacts; encroachement, poaching, grazing, live fencing, theft, shifting cultivation and control.
4. Forest Economics and Legislation :
Forest Economics : Fundamental principles, cost-benefit analyses; estimation of demand and supply; analysis of trends in the national and international market and changes in production and consumption patterns; assessment and projection of market structures; role of private sector and co-operatives; role of corporate financing. Socio-economic analyses of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest goods and service.
Legislation–History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People’s involvement, Joint Forest Management, Involvement of women; Forestry Policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber products, sustainable forest management; industrialisation policies; institutional and structural changes. Decentralization and Forestry Public Administration. Forest laws, necessity; general principles, Indian Forest Act 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their amendments; Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest Inventory.
IFS Agriculture Syllabus:-
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals, and humans.
Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping pattern. Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and inter-cropping, and their importance in relation to food production. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country.
Important features, scope and propagation of various types of forestry plantations such as extension, social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests.
Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplication; cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds.
Soil-physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Modern classification of Indian soils, Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertiliser use, integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Fixation of phosphorus and potassium in soils and the scope for their efficient use. Problem soils and their reclamation methods.
Soil conservation planning on watershed basis. Erosion and run-off management in hilly, foot hills, and valley lands; processes and factors affecting them. Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology of stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture area.
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.
Farm management, scope, important and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resources use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems.
Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them.
Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programs, socio-economic survey and status of big, small, and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers; farm mechanization and its role in agricultural productioin and rural employment. Training programmes for extension workers; lab-to-land programs.
Cell Theory, cell structure, cell organelles and their function, cell division, nucleic acids-structure and function, gene structure and function. Laws of heredity, their significance in plant breeding. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploid and an euploids. Mutation-micro and macro-and their role in crop improvement. Variation, components of variation. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.
History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin and evolution of crop plants, centre of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources-conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Hybrid vigour and its exploitation, backcross method of breeding, breeding for disease and pest resistance, role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of biotechnology in plant breeding. Improved varieties, hybrids, composites of various crop plants.
Seed technology, its importance. Different kinds of seeds and their seed production and processing techniques. Role of public and private sectors in seed production, processing and marketing in India.
Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Imbibition, surface tension, diffusion and osmosis. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration and water economy.
Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis-modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and nonaerobic respiration; C, C and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Auxins, hormones, and other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy.
Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits, plants, vegetable crops and flower plants; the package of practices and their scientific basis. Handling and marketing problems of fruit and vegetables. Principal methods of preservation of important fruits and vegetable products, processing techniques and equipment. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutriton. Raising of ornamental plants, and design and layout of lawns and gardens.
Diseases and pests of field vegetables, orchard and plantation crops of India. Causes and classification of plant pests and diseases. Principles of control of plant pests and diseases Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated pest and disease management. Epidemiology and forecasting.
Pesticides, their formulations and modes of action. Compatibility with rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins.
Storage pests and diseases of cereals and pulses, and their control.
Food production and consumption trends in India. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution and processing constraints. Relation of food production to national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of calorie and protein.
IFS Syllabus of Botany
Microbiology and Plant Pathology :
Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water. Important plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance / defence. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutonary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their economic potential.
Gymnosperms : Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Coniferrals and Gnetales, their structures and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
Angiosperms : Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic families–Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae ( Cruci-ferae ), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceaie, Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae ( Umbelliferae ), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solana-ceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae ( Composite ), Poaceae ( Gramineae ), Arecaceae ( Palmae ), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types. Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants. Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm–its development and function. Patterns of embryo development. Polyembryony, apoxmix, Applications of palynology.
Plant Utility and Exploitation :
Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes. Latex, cellulose Starch and their products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
Morphogenesis : Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.
Cell Biology :
Techniques of Cell Biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -structural and ultrastructural details. Structure and function of extracellular matrix or ECM ( cell wall ) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles ( chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, hydrogenosome ). Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction ( G-1 proteins, etc. ). Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance. Study of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes–structure, behaviour and significance.
Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution:
Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts ( Pseudoalleles ). Quantitative genetics and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing over–methods of gene mapping including molecular maps ( idea of mapping function ). Sex chromosomes and sex linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation. Mutation ( biochemical and molecular basis ). Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes ( including genetics of male sterility ). Prions and prion hypothesis.
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and protines. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Multigene families.
Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics :
Methods of plant breeding – introduction, selection and hybridization ( pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method ). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Micropropagation and genetic engineering–methods of transfer of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding.
Standard deviation and coefficient of variation ( CV ). Tests of significance ( Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests ). Probability and distributions ( normal, binomial and Poisson distributions ). Correlation and regression.
Physiology and Biochemistry :
Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis–photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway ( photorespiration ), C, C and CAM pathways. Respiraion (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation-electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites.
Pigments as photoreceptors ( plastidial pigments and phytochrome ). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence. Growth substances-their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology ( heat, water, salinity, metal ). Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening — its molecular basis and manipulation.
Ecology and Plant Geography :
Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community. Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their conservation. Pollution and its control ( including phytoremediation ).
Forest types of India – afforestation, deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books. Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property Rights. Biogeochemical cyeles. Global warming.
IFS Chemistry Syllabus:-
Paper – I
1. Atomic structure :
Quantum theory, Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave equation ( time independent ). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical Bonding :
Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules: H2 + H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN-, BeH2 and CO2. Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.
3. Solid State :
Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes ( crystallographic groups ). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Bragg’s law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radious ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors, Elementary study of liquid crystals.
4. The gaseous state :
Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquifictaion of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.
5. Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics :
Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes; calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their temperature dependence.
Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various process, entropy–reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics.
Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions and thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.
6. Phase equilibria and solutions :
Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.
7. Electrochemistry :
Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.
Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; over-potential; electroanalytical techniques–voltameter, polarography, ampero-metry, cyclic-voltametry, ion selective electrodes and their use.
8. Chemical Kinetics :
Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions. Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories.
9. Photochemistry :
Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.
10. Surface phenomena and catalysis :
Adsorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms – Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry :
Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores, photosynthesis–PSI, PSII; nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.
12. Coordination chemistry :
Electronic configurations; introduction of theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spactra of metal complexes.
Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in squareplaner complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization. Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.
13. General chemistry of ‘f’ block elements :
Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.
14. Non-Aqueous Solvents :
Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination model of non-aqueous solvents, Some highly acidic media, fluorosulphuric acid and super acids.
1. Delocalised Covalent Bonding : Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones.
Reaction mechanisms : General methods ( both kinetic and non-kinetic ) of study of mechanism or organic reactions illustrated by examples–use of isotopes, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy diagrams of simple organic reactions–transition states and intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium and carbanium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and niternes.
Substitution reactions : SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1’, SN2’, SNi’ and SRN1 mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, thiophene, indole.
Elimination reactions : E1, E2 and E1cb mechanism; orientation in E2 reactions–Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination–acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.
Addition reactions : Electrophilic addition to C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C=N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
Rearrangements : Pinacol-pinacolune, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer–Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.
3. Pericyclic reactions :
Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann ruleselectrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
4. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions :
Aldol condensation (including directed aldol condensation), Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
5. Polymeric Systems :
Physical chemistry of polymers : Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers, Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.
Preparation and properties of polymers : Organic polymers–polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers–phosphonitrilic halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.
Biopolymers : Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.
6. Synthetic uses of reagents : OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb ( OAc ) 4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAlH4, NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.
7. Photochemist :
Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
8. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation :
Rotational spectra–diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.
Vibrational spectra–diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
Electronic Spectra : Singlet and triplet states. N–>p* and p->p* transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls–Woodward-Fieser rules.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance : Isochronous and anisochronous protons; chemical shift and coupling constant; Application of H1 NMR to simple organic molecules.
Mass Spectra : Parent peak, base peak, daugther peak, metastable peak, fragmentation of simple organic molecules; a cleavage, Mc-Latterly rearrangement.
Electron Spin Resonance : Inorganic complexes and free radicals.
IFS Syllabus for Mathematics
Linear Algebra :
Vector, space, linear dependance and independance, subspaces, bases, dimensions. Finite dimensional vector spaces. Matrices, Cayley-Hamiliton theorem, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, matrix of linear transformation, row and column reduction, Echelon form, eqivalence, congruences and similarity, reduction to cannonical form, rank, orthogonal, symmetrical, skew symmetrical, unitary, hermitian, skew-hermitian forms–their eigenvalues. Orthogonal and unitary reduction of quadratic and hermitian forms, positive definite quardratic forms.
Real numbers, limits, continuity, differerentiability, mean-value theorems, Taylor’s theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maximas and minima, asyptotes. Functions of several variables: continuity, differentiability, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange’s method of multipliers, Jacobian. Riemann’s definition of definite integrals, indefinite integrals, infinite and improper intergrals, beta and gamma functions. Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only). Areas, surface and volumes, centre of gravity.
Analytic Geometry :
Cartesian and polar coordinates in two and three dimesnions, second degree equations in two and three dimensions, reduction to cannonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines, plane, sphere, cone, cylinder., paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.
Ordinary Differential Equations :
Formulation of differential equations, order and degree, equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor, equations of first order but not of first degree, Clariaut’s equation, singular solution.
Higher order linear equations, with constant coefficients, complementary function and particular integral, general solution, Euler-Cauchy equation.
Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, determination of complete solution when one solution is known, method of variation of parameters.
Dynamics, Statics and Hydrostatics :
Degree of freedom and constraints, rectilinerar motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles, constrained motion, work and energy, conservation of energy, motion under impulsive forces, Kepler’s laws, orbits under central forces, motion of varying mass, motion under resistance.
Equilibrium of a system of particles, work and potential energy, friction, common catenary, principle of virtual work, stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.
Pressure of heavy fluids, equilibrium of fluids under given system of forces Bernoulli’s equation, centre of pressure, thrust on curved surfaces, equilibrium of floating bodies, stability of equilibrium, metacentre, pressure of gases.
Vector Analysis :
Scalar and vector fields, triple, products, differentiation of vector function of a scalar variable, Gradient, divergence and curl in cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates and their physical interpretations. Higher order derivatives, vector identities and vector equations.
Application to Geometry : Curves in space, curvature and torision. Serret-Frenet’s formulae, Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green’s identities.
Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, homomorphism of groups quotient groups basic isomorophism theorems, Sylow’s group, permutation groups, Cayley theorem. Rings and ideals, principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and Euclidean domains. Field extensions, finite fields.
Real Analysis :
Real number system, ordered sets, bounds, ordered field, real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property, cauchy sequence, completeness, Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann integral, improper integrals, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions. Differentiation of fuctions of several variables, change in the order of partial derivatives, implict function theorem, maxima and minima. Multiple integrals.
Complex Analysis :
Analytic function, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, power series, Taylor’s series, Laurent’s Series, Singularities, Cauchy’s residue theorem, contour integration. Conformal mapping, bilinear transformations.
Linear Programming :
Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution, graphical method and Simplex method of solutions. Duality.
Transportation and assignment problems. Travelling salesman problems.
Partial differential equations :
Curves and surfaces in three dimesnions, formulation of partial differential equations, solutions of equations of type dx/p=dy/q=dz/r; orthogonal trajectories, pfaffian differential equations; partial differential equations of the first order, solution by Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Charpit’s method of solutions, linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, equations of vibrating string, heat equation, laplace equation.
Numerical Analysis and Computer programming :
Numerical methods :
Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods, solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct) methods, Gauss-Seidel (iterative) method. Newton’s (Forward and backward) and Lagrange’s method of interpolation.
Numerical integration : Simpson’s one-third rule, tranpezodial rule, Gaussian quardrature formula.
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Euler and Runge Kutta-methods.
Computer Programming :
Storage of numbers in Computers, bits, bytes and words, binary system. arithmetic and logical operations on numbers. Bitwise operations. AND, OR , XOR, NOT, and shift/rotate operators. Octal and Hexadecimal Systems. Conversion to and form decimal Systems.
Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integrers.
Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.
Developing simple programs in Basic for problems involving techniques covered in the numerical analysis.
Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics :
Generalised coordinates, constraints, holonomic and non-holonomic , systems. D’ Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’ equations, Hamilton equations, moment of intertia, motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions.
Equation of continuity, Euler’s equation of motion for inviscid flow, stream-lines, path of a particle, potential flow, two-dimensional and axisymetric motion, sources and sinks, vortex motion, flow past a cylinder and a sphere, method of images. Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.